The basic behavior of a dictionary in many ways mirrors that of a sequence: len(d) returns the number of items (key-value pairs) in d, d[k] returns the value associated with the key k, d[k] = v associates the value v with the key k, del d[k] deletes the item with key k, and k in d checks whether there is an item in d that has the key k. Although they share several common characteristics, there are some important distinctions: Dictionary keys don t have to be integers (though they may be). They may be any immutable type, such as floating-point (real) numbers, strings, or tuples. You can assign a value to a key even if that key isn t in the dictionary to begin with; a new item will be created. You cannot assign a value to an index outside the list s range (without using append or something like that).

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puts "#{sentence_count / paragraph_count} sentences per paragraph (average)" puts "#{word_count / sentence_count} words per sentence (average)"

As described in 4, the Point A slide engages the audience by describing a challenge they face, and the Point B slide motivates the audience by af rming what they want in light of the challenge. This gap between Point A and Point B forms the dramatic

The calculations are so simple that they can be interpolated directly into the output commands rather than precalculated.

You ve been updating the source code as you ve gone along, and in each case you ve put the logic next to the puts statement that shows the result to the user. However, for the final version of your basic application, it d be tidier to separate the logic from the presentation a little and put the calculations in a separate block of code before everything is printed to the screen. There are no logic changes, but the finished source for analyzer.rb looks a little cleaner this way:


The expression k in d (where d is a dictionary) looks for a key, not a value. The expression v in l, on the other hand (where l is a list) looks for a value, not an index. This may seem a bit inconsistent, but it is actually quite natural when you get used to it. After all, if the dictionary has the given key, checking the corresponding value is easy.

lines = File.readlines("text.txt") line_count = lines.size text = lines.join word_count = text.split.length character_count = text.length character_count_nospaces = text.gsub(/\s+/, '').length paragraph_count = text.split(/\n\n/).length sentence_count = text.split(/\.|\ |!/).length puts "#{line_count} lines" puts "#{character_count} characters"

"#{character_count_nospaces} characters excluding spaces" "#{word_count} words" "#{paragraph_count} paragraphs" "#{sentence_count} sentences" "#{sentence_count / paragraph_count} sentences per paragraph (average)" "#{word_count / sentence_count} words per sentence (average)"

tension that you propose to resolve in the rest of the story. Just as the wording you choose for the Point A and Point B headlines can spell the difference between hitting or missing the mark with your audience, what you choose to sketch here will make the difference too. Because these two slides are so critical to the entire presentation, sketch them as a pair, as shown in Figure 7-6, as you carefully consider how to connect with the emotions of the audience and con rm that they care about the problem that exists in this gap between A and B.

If you ve made it this far and everything s making sense, congratulations are due. Let s look at how to extend our application a little further with some more interesting statistics.

Your analyzer has a few basic functions, but it s not particularly interesting. Line, paragraph, and word counts are useful statistics, but with the power of Ruby you can extract significantly more interesting data from the text. The only limit is your imagination, but in this section you ll look at a couple other features you can implement, and how to do so.

Tip Checking for key membership in a dictionary is much more efficient than checking for membership in

FIGURE 7-6 It s critical that you hit the mark of the Point A and Point B slides, both verbally and visually.

extended or tweaked in the future and planning ahead for the possibility. Many development bottlenecks have occurred when systems were designed too rigidly to cope with changing circumstances!

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